Object Oriented Design Patterns In Java Pdf Free
Design patterns are the reusable solutions that solve common problems of software development. These problems include repetitive code, redundant functions and logic etc. These help to save considerable effort and time required for the developers while developing software. Design patterns are commonly used in object-oriented software products by incorporating best practices and promoting reusability for developing robust code.
Object Oriented Design Patterns In Java Pdf Free
Design patterns are template-based reusable solutions to help developers work effortlessly in multiple projects. In Java, the design patterns are flexible and help to identify unwanted repetitive code easily. The architecture of the software can be customised as per the requirements. Some of the advantages of using design patterns in Java are:
Both Design Patterns and Algorithms describe typical solutions to any given problem. But the main difference is that the algorithm defines a clear set of actions for achieving a goal and a design pattern provides a high-level description of any solution. Design patterns applied to two different problems might be the same but the logic of implementation would be different and is based on the requirements.
Factory design pattern belongs to the category of Creational Design Patterns. Here, the objects are created without exposing the logic of creation to the client. The objects refer to the common interface.
The adapter design pattern falls under the category of a structural design pattern that lets incompatible objects collaborate. It acts as a wrapper between 2 different objects. The adapter catches the call for one object and transforms them to be recognizable by the second object.
Proxy design pattern falls under the category of structural design that represents the functionality of other classes. This pattern lets the developers provide a substitute for another object. This is called a proxy object. This helps to control the access to the original object and allows us to perform many tasks before or after the request reaches the original object.
Chain of Responsibility belongs to the category of a behavioural design pattern that passes requests via a chain of handlers. Whenever a request is received, the handler decides whether to process the request or pass it to the next handler of the chain. It is used for achieving loose coupling where the client request is passed through an object chain to process them.
Decorator design pattern belongs to the category of structural pattern that lets users add new features to an existing object without modifying the structure. This pattern creates a class called decorator class that acts as a wrapper to the existing class by keeping the signatures of class methods intact. This pattern makes use of abstract classes and interfaces with composition for implementing the wrapper. They are mostly used to apply SRP (Single Responsibility Principle) as we divide functionalities into classes with unique concerns. This pattern is structurally similar to the chain of responsibility pattern. Following are the steps to implement decorator design pattern:
The command pattern is a type of behavioural design pattern that transforms a request into a stand-alone object containing all the details about the request. This pattern is a data-driven pattern because we make use of the information about the request by wrapping it as an object and is passed to the invoker object as a command. The invoker object checks for the object that can handle the command and passes it to that object to execute the command. The following diagram is the UML diagram that represents the command design pattern.
We have a client that calls the invoker to run a command. We have a Command interface that acts as an abstraction to the underlying concrete classes. Let us understand this with the help of an example of remote control that has only one button. Using this button, we will be controlling the behaviour of two objects tubelight and a radio. The command to control the objects will be implemented using the command design pattern.
An observer design pattern is a type of behavioural design pattern that is used for defining the one to many dependencies between the objects. It is most useful when we want to get notified about any change in the state of an object. In this pattern, when the state of one object changes, all the dependent objects are notified automatically. The object whose state is monitored is called the Subject whereas the dependents are called the Observers. In Java, we can implement this pattern by making use of the java.util.Observable class and the java.util.Observer interface. The following UML diagram represents the observer design pattern clearly:
A builder pattern is a type of creational design pattern that lets to construct complex objects in a step by step manner. The pattern lets to produce different representations of an object using the same construction logic. It helps in creating immutable classes having a large set of attributes. In the Factory and Abstract Factory Design Patterns, we encounter the following issues if the object contains a lot of attributes:
Prototype design pattern is used for creating duplicate objects based on the prototype of the already existing object using cloning. Doing this has a positive impact on the performance of object creation. Creating objects using the new keyword requires a lot of resources and is a heavyweight process that impacts performance. Hence, the prototype design pattern is more advantageous than the object created using a new keyword.
Design Patterns ensure that the reusable solutions that are well-tested are implemented which improves the code flexibility and paves way for developing smart and extendible solutions that solve problems easily. Due to this, the demand for software developers to know the best design practices and implementation has been rising steadily. These are generally discussed in the LLD (Low-Level Design) round of the company interviews. In this article, we have covered the most commonly asked design patterns interview questions for both freshers and experienced software professionals.
The difference between JDO and VO is that the JDO is a persistent technology that compete against entity beans in enterprise application development. It enables you to create POJO (plain old java objects) and persist them to the database.
While VO stands for value objects represents an abstract design pattern used in conjuction with entity beans, jdbc and possibly even JDO to overcome commonly found isolation and transactional problems in enterprise apps.
The GoF wrote the book in a C++ context but it still remains very relevant to Java programming. C++ and Java are both object-oriented languages. The GoF authors, through their experience in coding large scale enterprise systems using C++, saw common patterns emerge. These design patterns are not unique to C++. The design patterns can be applied in any object oriented language.
Design patterns are used to represent some of the best practices adapted by experienced object-oriented software developers. A design pattern systematically names, motivates, and explains a general design that addresses a recurring design problem in object-oriented systems. It describes the problem, the solution, when to apply the solution, and its consequences. It also gives implementation hints and examples.
Design patterns can speed up the development process by providing tested, proven development paradigms. Effective software design requires considering issues that may not become visible until later in the implementation. Reusing design patterns helps to prevent subtle issues that can cause major problems and improves code readability for coders and architects familiar with the patterns.
Often, people only understand how to apply certain software design techniques to certain problems. These techniques are difficult to apply to a broader range of problems. Design patterns provide general solutions, documented in a format that doesn't require specifics tied to a particular problem.
In addition, patterns allow developers to communicate using well-known, well understood names for software interactions. Common design patterns can be improved over time, making them more robust than ad-hoc designs.
These design patterns are all about class instantiation. This pattern can be further divided into class-creation patterns and object-creational patterns. While class-creation patterns use inheritance effectively in the instantiation process, object-creation patterns use delegation effectively to get the job done.
These design patterns are all about Class and Object composition. Structural class-creation patterns use inheritance to compose interfaces. Structural object-patterns define ways to compose objects to obtain new functionality.
Some authors allege that design patterns don't differ significantly from other forms of abstraction, and that the use of new terminology (borrowed from the architecture community) to describe existing phenomena in the field of programming is unnecessary. The Model-View-Controller paradigm is touted as an example of a "pattern" which predates the concept of "design patterns" by several years. It is further argued by some that the primary contribution of the Design Patterns community (and the Gang of Four book) was the use of Alexander's pattern language as a form of documentation; a practice which is often ignored in the literature. 350c69d7ab